Mitochondria are the energy plants of the human body and evidence about their role in the development of diseases is growing. Thus, when failures occur in its functioning a dysfunctional picture is installed. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is related to aging, ovarian failure and implications for fertility. We’ll cover it here how mitochondrial dysfunction affects women’s health.
Mitochondria are fundamental organelles for the homeostasis of the organism, have a double membrane and are exclusively inherited from our mothers. Its main function is the generation of cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Mitochondria have a relatively weak model of protection for their DNA when compared to the cellular nuclear genome, as well as having fewer histones for their repair. In this way, mitochondria are more vulnerable to mutations, which corroborates mitochondrial stress and can cause a dysfunctional picture.
Mitochondria and Quality Control
As quality control mechanisms for cell damage, mitochondria have the ability to initiate the process of fission and fusion. in order to adapt to stressful environments and maintain the homeostasis of the body. In addition, they are also able to promote mitophagy and autophagy in those mitochondria that are not in good working order. Therefore, in situations of mtDNA mutation, impaired biogenesis and reduction in the activity of enzymes such as TCA, important for metabolism, occurs greater degradation of mitochondria , which interferes with homeostasis.
Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Women’s Health
Mitochondrial dysfunction compromises women’s health, because it is linked to greater insulin resistance through a mechanism of increased ROS production, which hinders the action of insulin on adipocytes. In addition, intracellular calcium balance dysregulation occurs, compromising the activation of Ca+-dependent enzymes, which impairs lipid oxidation. In women, this condition can cause the involvement of gestational diabetes, as well as in the postpartum period type II diabetes mellitus, in addition to compromising fetal health.
Associated with this, women may also present the picture of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-PCOS that is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. In this sense, ovarian failure compromises women’s reproductive health. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction should be the target in order to modulate therapeutic responses to various diseases in order to promote more fertility, health and quality of life to patients.
Therefore, to promote more health in women mitochondrial dysfunction must be combated. In a practical way, lifestyle-related habits are key factors for the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, in addition to the adoption of regular practice of exercises that have been proven to improve energy generation, eating habits should also be modified. In short, the supplementation of bioactive, phytochemical and CoQ-10 compounds can assist in the treatment of such dysfunction and improve the patient’s quality of life.
Article Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obesity and Reproduction: Manasi Das, Consuelo Sauceda, Nicholas J.G. Webster, Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obesity and Reproduction, Endocrinology
, Volume 162, Issue 1, January 2021, bqaa158, https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa158
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