The various types of magnesium
are involved in various metabolic functions
, being vital for the activity of more than 300 enzymes
. It plays a important role in the synthesis of ATP, activates almost all glycolytic enzymes and citric acid cycle enzymes. It is related to the Cell membrane permeability and electrical activity
, besides being important for bone mineralization, muscle relaxation, and neurotransmission
. The deficiency of this mineral may favor the development of several chronic non-communicable
diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, fibromyalgia, hypertension, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases.
Types of Magnesium
Magnesium is available as supplements in organic and inorganic forms, each trying to use the best metabolic pathway for high absorption and availability insurance. In this way, there is the qmagnesium uelato that uses protein pathways to increase absorption magnesium and is used in dyspeptic symptoms, muscle functions and energy production, the magnésium linked to vitamin C that promotes the benefits of both nutrients, ensuring easy digestion and absorption for both, the cmagnesium arbonate which is used for its
laxative and antacid effects
and also because
it moderately increases the bioavailability of magnesium
, cmagnesium itrato: useful in increased bowel movements and in the constipation relief, because it increases intestinal fluid, theof magnesium that is used as an adjunct to many types of symptoms, but the main problem is the low bioavailability (about 4%), even if the magnesium concentration is high, the fmagnesium ofato that cmagnesium ombine with its ligant and has multilateral benefits in fibromyalgia, prevention of heart disease, bone health and even regulation of cholesterol levels, the smagnesium ulfate that has been promoted as a broad and
multi-beneficial supplement in sleep disorders, stress, constipation, exercise
and as an important supplier of magnesium. However, as the elemental concentration is at 10%, its bioavailability is low
and also does not have the ability to provide magnesium within the cell properly, the gmagnesium liciinate which is recommended in periods of stress
, premenstrual syndrome
and is the recommended form as a prophylactic method for type 2 diabetes
Magnesium rotator: Magnesium bound to orotic acid has a better absorption rate, higher bioavailability
, and due to the two elementary characteristics, orotic acid is able to transport magnesium through the cell
, increasing its anti-apoptotic and regenerative activity
, promotes benefits for intestinal, cardiovascular and neural health
. In addition, orotic acid seems to increase the absorption of certain nutrients such as zinc, manganese and potassium.
Types of magnesium and supplementation
The estimated average need for magnesium lies between 255 mg and 265 mg for women and between 330 mg/day and 350 mg/day for adult and elderly men. Or magnesium is present in dark green vegetables, legumes, oilseeds, milk and dairy products, and whole grains. Fish, meat and some fruits are the poorest sources of this mineral. In Brazil, 70% of the adult population has insufficient magnesium intake, according to the National Food Survey 2008-2010.
Limiting factors of magnesium supplementation
Magnesium intake and absorption is complicated. Its intestinal absorption does not generally exceed 25% in healthy individuals and 80% in deficient states.
On the other hand, the intestinal environment plays a key role in the absorption of magnesium
, since pH, microbiome, or local inflammation are factors that easily alter magnesium absorption. Another problem lies in the bioavailability of magnesium, which most studies suggest is low to moderate in most dietary and supplemental forms. In addition, there is difficulty in measuring total serum magnesium levels.
Study suggestion: Use
of magnesium in aging – Science Play
Watch the video on Science Play with Marcelo Carvalho:
Mechanisms and Applications of Magnesium in Health and Sport
Article: Schiopu C, Ștefănescu G, Diaconescu S, Bălan GG, Gimiga N, Rusu E, Moldovan CA, Popa B, Tataranu E, Olteanu AV, Boloș A, Ștefănescu C. Magnesium Orotate and the Microbiome–Gut–Brain Axis Modulation: New Approaches in Psychological Comorbidities of Gastrointestinal Functional Disorders. Nutrients
. 2022; 14(8):1567. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081567