What is it?
Chronic non-communicable diseases are widely defined as any long-term disease or condition, which has long-term effects and is non-communicable or non-infectious in its etiology. Traditionally, the prevention and management of these diseases has been limited and directed to control risk factors. Some examples of chronic non-communicable diseases are cancer, diabetes, respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases
Each disease has its own risk factors, but it is understood that they all share some similar factors, since they can be developed together. This means that a person is unlikely to have only cardiovascular disease, but may be accompanied by diabetes, dyslipidemia, systemic arterial hypertension, among others. The main common risk factors are tobacco use, harmful alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating, and insufficient physical activity.
How to diagnose chronic non-communicable diseases
Each chronic disease has its own specific diagnostic method. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is usually due to fasting glycemia or oral glucose tolerance test, or glide hemoglobin analysis. Cancer, on the other year, is usually confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination. For cardiovascular diseases, there are several tests that can be performed, such as echocardiography, exercise testing, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AD), holter and myocardial scintigraphy.
Feeding and supplementation
The basis of the diet of patients with NCDs, and also of those who seek prevention against these diseases, should be based on fresh and minimally processed foods, so that more micronutrients are transmitted through the bloodstream. Ultra-processed foods, those with excess sugar, salt and fat, should be avoided as they increase the risk of overweight and obesity, all-cause mortality, metabolic syndrome and depression in adults. Supplementation in these cases should be evaluated individually and depends on the disease, its comorbidities, age, food intake, biochemical tests and several other factors.
Article: Lane MM, Davis JA, Beattie S, et al. Ultraprocessed food and chronic noncommunicable diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 observational studies. Rev Obes
. 2021;22(3):e13146. doi:10.1111/obr.13146
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