Glucose

Tempo de Leitura: 2 minutos

What is it?

Glucose is a monosaccharide, composed of 6 carbons, and together with fructose are the most abundant monosaccharides in the diet. This is also in the constitution of other more complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharide lactose and polysaccharide starch.

What’s glucose for?

It is the main “fuel” of the human body, since from the glycolysis process, already in tissues, the monosocarid molecule is used to produce energy in the form of ATP, both in the presence of oxygen and without it. However, it must be at acceptable levels not only within the cells, but also in the blood, to keep the brain functioning perfectly.

How does glucose regulation occur?

Glucose homeostasis is controlled by several hormones, but the main ones are secreted by the pancreas: insulin and glucagon. These are responsible for maintaining blood glucose at adequate levels depending on the food status of the individual – fasting, should be between 70-99 mg/dL and up to 140 mg/dL when measured 2h after a meal. Insulin is secreted in greater quantity when there is plenty of energy, that is, after food intake, while glucagon is an antagonistic hormone, being stimulated by a fall in blood glucose levels, which usually occurs in fasting.

How to measure levels?

Glucose monitoring is especially important in patients who have some disorder in their metabolism, such as diabetes, both for diagnosis and for monitoring. Glucose levels are measured in the blood, that is, they can be measured in a blood collection or even in equipment called glucometers. Fasting glycemia is the measurement of blood glucose after a period of 8 to 12 hours in fasting. As all foods, solid and liquid, sweet or salty, interfere with blood sugar rates, fasting should be strict, even avoiding the intake of broths or beverages without added sugars. Long fasting, above 12 hours, also interferes in glucose rates, as there is release of hormones and substances that stimulate the production of sugars by the body itself, and may generate higher than expected rates.

Reference

Reading Suggestion:
Effects of Plant Based Diet on Glucose Metabolism

GÜEMES, Mary; RAHMAN, Sofia A.; HUSSAIN, Khalid.
What is a normal blood glucose?
. Archives of disease in childhood, v. 101, n. 6, p. 569-574, 2016.

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