GlyNAC Supplementation for Healthy Aging

Tempo de Leitura: 3 minutos

Aging is associated with severely high oxidative stress, glutathione deficiency, and impaired mitochondrial function. In addition to increased inflammation, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction and lower muscle strength and mental cognition. Thus, in this context, the literature presents solid evidence that glycine (Gly) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation (found commercially as GlyNAC) is promising for the treatment of such conditions.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Mitochondria are cellular motors that oxidize fatty acids and glucose to provide energy for cellular processes. Thus, associating with the proper functioning of the human organism. However, mitochondrial function is impaired as age increases. Therefore, it is possible to observe that mitochondrial involvement is associated with high inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, physical and muscular decline, as well as cognitive decline.

During the fuel oxidation process, mitochondria generate toxic reactive oxygen species (OSIs) that result in harmful oxidative stress. Therefore, mitochondria are dependent on antioxidants to protect against these harmful effects. In this context, glutathione, the most abundant endogenous intracellular antioxidant in the body, is composed of glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid. Thus, the aging process is associated with its deficiency and its synthesis decreases and is linked to the availability of glycine and cysteine.

Why GlyNAC?

Glutathione synthesis requires two biochemical steps. In the first step, cysteine is added to glutamic acid to form the glutamyctocysteine intermediate. In the second stage, glycine is added to glutamycystein eats to form glutathione, which is extremely important for mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids.

Glycine and Cysteine Deficiency in Aging

Since cysteine and glycine are gluconeogenic amino acids, they could be used to increase gluconeogenesis and support oxidation of mitochondrial glucose in abnormally high fasting. Therefore, glucose production rates do not increase in older adults, and it is evident that glycine and cysteine are not used for glucose production. Thus, it is suggested that due to a serious defect in the oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids, amino acids (including glycine and cysteine) are diverted to the generation of energy that can also explain the high breakdown of muscle protein observed in this age group and its recovery from glynac supplementation.

Three Powers

GlyNAC supplementation is viaviable because it acts on three “fronts”, in the correction of glutathione deficiency, which results in the correction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, since it acts as an endogenous intracellular antioxidant. However, the correction of glutathione alone is insufficient to explain the magnitude and extent of the improvements, suggesting that there may be other factors at play such as the fact of combination contain glycine, a major donor of the methyl group. Methyl groups are abundant in DNA and are important components of multiple cellular reactions. In addition to glycine is also important for the normal functioning of the brain. And the fact that it contains N-acetylcysteine, which functions as a cysteine donor, extremely important in energy metabolism, contributing to the sulfhydrin group (HS) needed for energy generation.

Clinical practice

GlyNAC supplementation is a simple, safe and effective nutritional strategy. Its main goal involves increasing cellular defenses to protect against oxidative stress. Thus, it can be seen that the combination of glycine and cysteine bring powerful improvements, recovery and correction of multiple abnormalities and defects in older individuals. Consequently, it results in improved strength and cognition as well as several conditions observed in the aging process.

Bibliographic references

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Article GlyNAC: Kumar P, Liu C, Hsu JW, Chacko S, Minard C, Jahoor F, Sekhar RV. Glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) supplementation in older adults improves glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, genotoxicity, muscle strength, and cognition: Results of a pilot clinical trial. Clin Transl Med. 2021 Mar;11(3):e372. doi: 10.1002/ctm2.372. PMID: 33783984; PMCID: PMC8002905.

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