Poor diet quality outweighed all other mortality risk factors, accounting for 11 million deaths and half of deaths from cardiovascular disease worldwide. Implementation of nutritional recommendations from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and National Lipid Association can significantly benefit primary and secondary prevention of athertoerotic cardiovascular disease. Discover now 4 dietary strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk
Dietary strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk
When we think about dietary strategies for reducing cardiovascular risk, the implementation of dietary strategies that promote a healthier diet to reduce the risk of atheosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are fundamental. To help facilitate these necessary lifestyle changes, below are four dietary strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease:
Adopt Mediterranean-style food pattern
The Mediterranean food pattern is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, vegetables, nuts and unsalted seeds and olive oil. In addition, it is low to moderate in fish, skinless birds, low-fat dairy products and red wine (in individuals who consume alcohol). As well as the low red meat content. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is also rich in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, flavonoids, phytosterols and fibers, all of which contribute to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Decrease red meat consumption
While red meat, including beef, pork and sheep, contributes to the supply of nutrients such as protein, iron and zinc, they have also been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Red meat is rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, and also in L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine, both used in the formation of the pro-athelogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by intestinal microbes.
High plasma levels of TMAO are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Replacing 2 portions per day of red meat with herbal protein sources for 8 weeks significantly reduced TMAO and LDL-C levels. In addition, red meat is the main source of heme iron, with high iron stocks contributing to oxidative stress by promoting LDL oxidation. A significant positive association was reported between red meat intake, iron load (measured by plasma ferritin) and risk of myocardial infarction.
Include soluble fibers in food
Soluble fibers such as beta glucans, pectin, gums and mucilages reduce LDL cholesterol. It is recommended to intake 5 to 10 g of soluble fibers per day or even more, as tolerated. This amount may be able to reduce LDL cholesterol by 4-10%. Food sources of soluble fibers include oats, barley, vegetables, lentils, apples, pears, plums, oranges, broccoli, carrots and peas. In addition, supplements such as psyllium and methylcellulose.
Reduce caffeine and alcohol consumption
High intake of unfiltered coffee demonstrates increased LDL. Cafestol is removed when preparing coffee through a paper filter, so filtered coffee does not have a significant impact on LDL levels. Depending on this, alcohol may increase triglyceride levels. High alcohol intake is associated with high triglycerides, especially when obesity is present. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be advised to reduce or eliminate alcohol.
What is the role of omega-3 in cardiovascular diseases?
Watch the video on Science Play with Daniel Unpierre:
Exercise for blood pressure- Advances and challenges
Article: Cardiovascular disease
– Sikand G, Severson T. Top 10 dietary strategies for atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction [published correction appears in Am J Prev Cardiol. 2021 Mar 22;6:100174]. Am J Prev Cardiol
. 2020;4:100106. Published 2020 Nov 19. doi:10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100106