How to perform nutritional management in thyroid disorders?

Tempo de Leitura: 2 minutos

Thyroid is one of the largest glands in the body, stimulated by the action of TSH, results in the production of hormones T4 (mostly), T3 (active form) and calcitonin, although the latter is not considered a thyroid hormone. Among the functions of thyroid hormones is increased lipolysis, GH secretion and cholesterol excretion. However, this gland may be affected by sleep failure, intestinal microbiota, excess toxins, vitamin deficit, and excessive stress. In this context, nutritional behaviors can attenuate thyroid disorders, manipulations in macronutrients and micronutrients as well, as well as vitamins, which may result in a decrease in this dysfunction.

Hypothyroidism x Hyperthyroidism

In this context, some thyroid dysfunctions are common in the population, such as hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, nutritional deficiencies and changes in the HPA axis, and hyperthyroidism caused mainly by Graves’ disease. Still on hypothyroidism, its symptoms can be confused with those linked to depression, while in hyperthyroidism there is the presence of weight loss, shorthand, anxiety, diarrhea, sarcopenia, osteopenia and etc.

As reference values it is expected that the tsh hormone dosage is between 1 to 2.5 IU/mL and free T4 levels from 0.9 to 1.3 ng / dL and free T3 2.7 to 3.25 μg / mL and the ratio T4 L / T3 L in values from 3 to 3.5. However, these results need to be associated with the clinic, since they only make sense when there are complaints on the part of the patient.

Clinical practice

In the case of micronutrient supplementation it is necessary, before prescribing any compound, to identify the levels of vitamins and minerals in the body through biochemical tests. It is also emphasized that iode should not be supplemented in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, since they can act as a trigger for these diseases.

On the other hand, the conversion of T4 into T3 is facilitated by the practice of physical activities, cold and action of the hormone testosterone. On the other hand, it ends up being impaired by stress, cortisol elevation and inflammation, and the latter manage the latter with the patient.

Bibliographic references

Reading Suggestion:
Effects of Dietary Protein on Thyroid Axis Activity

Watch the video with Dr Filippo Pedrinola on the Science Play platform –
Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

Article: Thyroid disorders: Knezevic J, Starchl C, Tmava Berisha A, Amrein K. Thyroid-Gut-Axis: How Does the Microbiota Influence Thyroid Function?

Nutrients. 2020 Jun 12;12(6):1769. doi: 10.3390/nu12061769. PMID: 32545596; PMCID: PMC7353203.

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